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Bellona Report nr. 2:96. Written by: Thomas Nilsen, Igor Kudrik and Alexandr Nikitin.

The Russian Northern Fleet

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Aftenposten, Ukjent atomulykke i nord (Unknown nuclear accident in the north), Oslo March 13 1993.

Aleshin, V. S., Vessel Nuclear Reactors.

Atomnaya Energiya, Moscow, No. 1 and 3 1992, No. 4 1993, No. 2, 4, 5 and 6 1994.

Backe, S., Havari av sovjetisk ubåt, Echo-II, Beredskapstiltak, radioaktivitetsmålinger, utslipp av jod og konsekvenser (The loss of a Soviet Echo II submarine, preparedness, radiation monitoring, release of radioactive iodine and consequences), National Institute of radiation Hygiene (new name 1993 "Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority"), Østerås 3 November 1989.

Bakhmetyev, A. M., Methods of judging safety levels and securing nuclear energy generators, 1992.

Barents News, Kirkenes, 1995.

Berlin, J., Kondratyeva, V., Musorin, E., Nevriev, J. and Shiriaev, A., The Flying Dogs Island, unpublished article, 1993.

Bukharin, Oleg and Handler, Joshua, Russian Nuclear Powered Submarine Decommissioning, Science & Global Security, No. 5 pp. 245 - 271, Amsterdam 1995.

Bøhmer, Nils and Nilsen, Thomas, Reprocessing Plants in Siberia, Bellona Working Paper No. 4, Oslo 1995.

Castberg, Rune, Note, The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker 1995.

Cherkashin, Nicolay, "Hiroshima" appeared at High Noon, Heroes and Victims of the first Soviet Strategic Cruiser-Missile Submarine K-19, Logbook in the Series Shipwreck Alarm, Moscow 1993.

Clancy, Tom, Submarine, A guided tour inside a nuclear warship, New York 1993.

Decommissioning obsolete submarines and storing reactor compartments. Paper presented at conference on Problems in decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear submarines, Moscow, June 19-22 1995.

Document from the local Gosatomnadzor (V. Dimitriev), Severodvinsk Environmental Committee (M. Mailov) and the Control Committee for objects subject to the Ministry of Defence (A. Gordienko), Severodvinsk 1995.

"Eco-planet" No. 40 - 1991.

Eriksen, Viking Olver, Kjernevåpen - hva nå? (Nuclear weapons-what now?), Kjeller 1995.

Eriksen, Viking Olver, Sunken Nuclear Submarines, Oslo 1992.

Faulkner, Keith, Jane`s Fighting Ships, Recognition Handbook, Surrey 1994.

Goriyledzyan, E. A., Shmakov, R. A., Shukharov, F. N. and Steblin, P. G., Lectures presented in the document: Problems of decommissioning of nuclear powered submarines and environmental protection in Northern areas, Severodvinsk March 15 - 16, 1995.

Handler, Joshua, Radioactive Waste Situation in the Russian Pacific Fleet, Nuclear Waste Disposal Problems, Submarine Decommissioning, Submarine Safety, and Security of Naval Fuel, Greenpeace Trip Report, Washington D. C. October 27, 1994.

Handler, Joshua, Submarine Safety - The Soviet/Russian Record, Jane`s Intelligence Review, London July 1992.

Handbook from the firms subject to GRTsAS, presented before the Russian Government in 1993.

Handbook On implementation plan for handling of nuclear waste and spent fuel in Severodvinsk Territory, Summer 1994.

Handbook from the Russian Ministry of Defence, April 1994.

International Institute for Strategic Studies, Militærbalansen 1995/96 (The Military Balance 1995/96), Oslo 1995.

Izvestiya, Moscow, July 13, 1993, May 12 and June 3, 1995.

Jane`s Defence Weekly, London, September 16 and November 4, 1995, January 3 and February 28, 1996.

Jane`s Fighting Ships 1995 - 96, 98th edition, London 1995.

Jane`s Intelligence Review, London, December 1993 and March 1994.

Jane's Navy International, London, November - December 1995.

Klinov, Aleksey, Note, Severodvinsk 1994.

Kommersant Daily, Moscow June 29, 1995.

Komsomolets Zapolyarya, Murmansk January 19, 1991.

Komsomolskaya Pravda, Moscow, June 30, 1989 and June 23, 1995.

Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star), Mocow, December 26, 1992, January 28 (with references to the Russian Magazine Russkoe orushie (Russian Weapons) which refers to the book: Kostev, Georgy (Rear Admiral), Post-War History of the Russian Navy (1945 - 1991)), April 15 and 29, May 27, July 13 and October 13, 1995.

Kremlin, A. E., Security at Nuclear Energy Installations, Moscow.

Kurchatov, Aleksandr, New Chernobyls at Sea, chronicle in the Moscow Times, Moscow March 2, 1996.

Kværner Moss Technology as., Disposal of Russian Nuclear Submarines, a report presented to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Oslo January 19, 1996.

Lee, Robin, State of the Russian Navy Data Page, with sub-files, available at URL: http://www., last updated January 1996.

Lingjærde, Rolf O., Kjernekraft Status og Utvikling 1995 (Nuclear energy, status and development 1995), Institute of Energy Technology, Kjeller November 1995.

Morskoy sbornik, Moscow No. 6, 1990, No. 1, 1991, Nos. 4 and 7, 1992, Nos. 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12, 1993, Nos. 4, 7 and 12, 1994, Nos. 1, 6 and 8, 1995.

Moscow News, The Great Uranium Caper, English edition No. 48, Moscow December 8 - 14, 1995.

Murmansky Vestnik, Murmansk, December 2, 1993, January 5 and 11 and March 15, 1995.

Na strazhe Zapolyarya, Severomorsk. April 19, 21 and 22, May 31, June 21 and 24, 1995.

NATO, Cross-border environmental problems emanating from defence related installations and activities, Volume 1: Radioactive contamination, Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society, Phase 1: 1993 - 1995, Report No. 204, April 1995.

Nezavisimaya Gazeta, Moscow, April 22, October 25 and 31, 1995 and January, 1996.

Nevskoye Vremya, St. Petersburg February 22, 1996.

Nilsen, Thomas and Bøhmer, Nils, Sources to Radioactive Contamination in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk Counties, Bellona report No. 1 - 1994, Oslo March 1, 1994.

Nilsen, Thomas, Ulykken med atomubåten K-192 (The accident on the nuclear submarine K-192 (former K-131)), Bellona Working Paper, Murmansk August 2, 1995.

Norwegian High Command, Atomdrevne fartøyer ved Nordflåten og avfallsproblemene (Nuclear Powered Vessels of the Northern Fleet and Connected Disposal Problems), Note to The Ministry of the Environment, Oslo April 7, 1992.

Nuclear Engineering International, World Nuclear Industry Handbook 1996, Surrey 1996.

Office of Naval Intelligence, Worldwide Submarine Proliferation in the Coming Decade, 3rd edition, Washington D. C., May 1995.

Office of Technology Assessment, Nuclear Waste in the Arctic, an Analysis of Arctic and Other Regional Impacts from Soviet Nuclear Contamination, Congress of the United States, Washington D. C., September 1995.

Office of Technology Assessment, Environment Program, Summary of Workshop on Russian Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management, Congress of the United States, Washington D. C., April 1995.

Osipenko, Leonid G., Zhiltsov, Lev M. and Mormul, Nicolay G., Atomnaya Podvodnaya Epopeya (The Nuclear Underwater Era), Moscow 1994.

Papkovsky, B. N. (Minatom), Status and Problems with Decommissioning of Marine Reactors in Russia, lecture presented in the document: Russian Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington D. C., April 1995.

Pavlov, Aleksandr S., Military Vessels of the Soviet Union and Russia 1945 - 1995, 3rd edition, Yakutsk 1994.

Perovsky, Vyacheslav A. (VNIPIET), Handbook presented before the Murmansk County Committee for Ecology and Natural Resources, Murmansk 1992.

Perovsky, Vyacheslav A. (VNIPIET), Possibilities for the Storing of Reactor Compartments Onshore, St. Petersburg 1995.

Petrov, Oleg, Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Navy of Russia, Moscow - Oslo 1995.

Polmar, Norman and Noot, Jurrien, Submarines of the Russian and Soviet Navies, 1718 - 1990, Naval Institute Press, Maryland 1991.

Polyarnaya Pravda, Murmansk, February 28 and September 26, 1995, January 24, 1996.

Pravda, Moscow July 1, 1991.

Preston, Antony, Dreadnought to Nuclear Submarines, National Maritime Museum, London 1980.

Publicity brochure from naval yard No. 35, Sevmorput, 1992

Resolution document March 1, 1995, No.15, Moscow 1995.

Ries, Tomas and Skorve, Johnny, Investigating Kola, A Study of Military Bases Using Satellite Photography, The Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo 1987.

Romanov, D. A., The Tragedy of the Nuclear Submarine "Komsomolets", St. Petersburg 1995.

The Rose Isles of the White Sea, Severodvinsk 1992.

Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Moscow September 14, 1995.

Russian Governmental Decree No. 514, Moscow July 24, 1992 (signed by J. Gaydar) and decree No. 644-47, Moscow August 31, 1992.

Russian Presidential Decree, No. H-1344, Moscow November 8, 1992.

Russian Presidential Decree, Moscow June 5, 1995

Rybny Murman, Murmansk, June 23 - 29, 1995, February 2 - 6, 1996.

Sarkisov, A. A., Physical Basis for the Use of Nuclear Steam Producing Installations, Moscow.

Severny Rabochy, Severodvinsk, June 3 and July 17, 1993, January 27, March 3 and November 18, 1994, January 19, February 15, March 7, 23, 24 and 25 and November 20, 1995.

Sinking Radioactive Nightmare, SVT2 - Norra Magasinet, Luleå 1994

Skogan, John Kristian, Sovjetunionens Nordflåte (The Soviet Northern Fleet) 1968 - 85, NUPI - report No. 105, Oslo 1986.

Skogan, John Kristian, Russland og betydningen av Kola-halvøya i historisk lys (Russia and the importance of the Kola Peninsula seen in a historic perspective), The Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Note No.477, Oslo October, 1992.

Skorve, Johnny, The Kola Satellite Image Atlas, The Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo 1991.

Sudoexport, Tanker Undersea, Moscow 1994.

Sudoexport, Undersea Transport Container Carrier, Moscow 1994.

Sudostroenie (Ship construction), No. 9 - 1990 and No. 1 - 1991.

The St. Petersburg Press, February 20 - 26, 1996.

Toppan, Andrew, USN Submarine List, available at URL:, Last updated 11/13 1995, Version 1.2.

United States General Accounting Office, Nuclear Safety, Concerns With Nuclear Facilities and Other Sources of Radiation in the Former Soviet Union, Report to Senator Bob Graham, Washington D. C. November, 1995.

UPI, Russian nuclear sub could be an environmental time bomb, New York February 8, 1994.

Vårt Vern, Oslo No. 3, 1993.

Yablokov, Aleksey V. et al., Facts and problems related to radioactive waste disposals in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation, Moscow 1993.

Yemalenikov, Aleksandr and Popov, Boris, Atom bez grifa sekretno (Unconfidential Atoms), IPPNW, Moscow - Berlin 1992.

Ølgaard, P. L., Nuclear ship accidents description and analysis, NT-4 (2nd edition), Department of Electrophysics, Technical University of Denmark, March 1993.

Ølgaard, P. L., Potential risk of nuclear ships, NT-11, Department of Electrophysics, Technical University of Denmark, July 1994.

Suggested reading

Argumenty i fakty, The Army in Figures, A. Kondrasjov, no. 8, 1996.

Bergman, R., Baklanov, A. and Segerstahl, B., Overview of nuclear risks on the Kola Peninsula (Summary Report), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, May 1996.

Cochran, T., Arkin, W., Norris, R. and Sands, J. Soviet Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Weapons Databook, volume IV, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., New York, 1989.

Feshbach, M., Russia in Transition, Ecological Disaster, Cleaning up the Hidden Legacy of the Soviet Regime, A Twentieth century fund report, New York, 1995.

Izvestija, Submarine officers conducted a rocket missile launch from the north to the firing range at Arkhangelsk, V. Litovkin, 29. August 1995.; Baksjanskij, 3. captain, and his God prevailed against the military prosecution, V. Litovkin, 31. January 1996.; Who shall benefit from the AES-contamination, A. Pasjkov, 5. March 1996.

Komsomolets Zapoljarja, The North Fleet has greater financial difficulies than during the war, 24. February 1996.

Krasnaja Zvezda, "Pjotr Velikij" - a new side of the Russian Fleet history. We must hope it`s not the last, O. Potsjinjuk, 13. October 1995.; Russias strategic nuclear naval forces go to the bottom, N. Kalistratov, 13. January 1996.

LeSage, L. G. and Sarkisov A. A., Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Moscow, 19. - 22. June 1995.

Moskovskaja Pravda, Northern hostages, D. Barinov, 5. August 1995.; War fleet of the Soviet Union (Russia) in the years 1989 - 95, 25 January 1996.

Murmansk vestnik, Rockets are business, I. Stalinskaja, 9. June 1995.; Strategic nuclear naval forces: realities and perspectives, 17. January 1996.; The North Fleet has a billion-debt, I. Stalinskaja, 27. March 1996.; Liquid metal, N. Mormul, 3. April 1996.; Catastrophe is far off, but we cannot be complacent, V. Kondratjev, 13. April 1996.; So yet again I leave for circumnavigation, I. Zjeveljuk, 18. April 1996.

Na strazje Zapoljarja, We ensure safety, A. Malov, 12. July 1995.; Lacking in funds, but optimistic, V. Gundarov, 7. October 1995.; Lacking in funds, I. Zjeveljuk, 25. October 1995.; The crews shall not starve, V. Mirtsjenko, 25. October 1995.; Watches from the supreme commander, I. Zjeveljuk, 1. November 1995.; Presidential salute, I. Zjeveljuk, 2. November 1995.; Honour, tradition and duty, A. Bljudenov, 4. November 1995.; Lieutenants of the North Fleet, V. Massalskij, 16. November 1995.; With the Fleet remains only promising ships and units, admiral O. Jerofejev, 23. november 1995.; Difficulties can be surmounted if one acts, P. Lysenko, 30. November 1995.; Press release from the armed navy, 6. December 1995.; Where the rockets "sleep", D. Litovkin, 10. December 1995.; Not all depends on politicians, admiral O. Jerofejev, 16. December 1995.; The importance of the Fleet must increase, admiral F. Gromov, 20. December 1995.; As before, the North Fleet is among the best, I. Zjeveljuk, 20. December 1995.; For the Fleet, the times of change have passed, admiral I. Kasatonov, 21. December 1995.; "Vepr" is put to use, L. Teltevskaja, 23. December 1995.; Farewell arms!, A. Bobretsov, 24. January 1996.; Daily lives in the "elite", I. Zjeveljuk, 14. February 1996.; War on two fronts, V. Serga, 7. March 1996.; On the commencement of the nationwide collection for completion of ships, 6. April 1996.

Nezavisimaja gazeta, Admirals are concerned about the destiny of the Russian Fleet, 1. March 1996.

Nezavisimaja gazeta (enclosed: Nezavisimaja vojennoje obozrenije), Crew deficiency in the armed forces threatens national security, V. Mukhin and A. Ovtsjinnikov, February 1996.; The naval component of the nuclear triad, admiral O. Jerofejev, March 1996.

Novaja Tambovskaja gazeta, The navy and its friends stand united in Tambovsk, V. Polozov, 13. October 1995.

Office of Naval Intelligence, Worldwide submarine challenges, Washington D. C. February 1996.

Pravda, N. Kalistratov, 27. December 1995.

Pravda-5, Lacking a powerful navy Russia is no longer Russia, fleet admiral I. Kapitanets, 23. February 1996.

Pravda Severa, How one bids the U-boats goodbye, O. Khimanytsj, 2. September 1995.

Rabotsjaja tribuna, Theft is impossible, but detonation even more so, V. Lasjkul, 15. November 1995.

Rossijskije vesti, Last mooring of the nuclear cruiser, D. Litovkin, 20. April 1996.

The International Center for Technology Assessment, The Threat of Nuclear Submarine Operations to Global Security and Environmental Safety, (Preliminary Report), Washington D. C., 1996.

Vestnik vojennoj informatsii, What disturbs the Russian army, no. 10, October 1995.

Vetsjernyj Murmansk, The admiral is puzzled, M. Kumunzjijeva, 2. December 1995.

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